Treatment of Municipal Wastewater - How Organic
The concepts reinforced in this technology are:
1. immobilization of organisms in the carrier matrix to protect the cells from shock load applications. 2. increase of accessibility of enzymes to the substrate by reducing the mean free path of the bio catalyst to the substrate. 3. reduction of the cellular synthesis by using the organisms with low-yield coefficient.
In Advanced 'Immobilized Cell Reactor' technology, the carrier matrix used is activated carbon of low surface area.
The immobilized bacteria in anoxic zone can fragment the organics into simpler compounds and the bacteria in oxic zone perform oxidation of organics. In addition to bacterial oxidation, catalytic oxidation is also facilitated at the active sites of the carbon matrix. The heat of combustion of organics released at the active sites will be used for excitation of organic molecules to cross over the activation energy barrier, which normally determines the rate of any chemical reaction in the immobilized cell reactor.
The freedom of movement of molecules is also restricted at the surface of adsorbent as they are anchored at the sites. Thus energy expenditure towards translational motion, which is considered to be the major component in the orientation of molecule, is lowered to maximum extent. The partially oxidized organic molecule is aerobically oxidized with low heat of combustion by aerobic organisms immobilized at the mouth of the pores for organic wastewater treatment. Thus, the energy available for cellular synthesis is decreased and consequently the biomass production is decreased. Since the organisms are in immobilized state, the expenditure of energy towards diffusion of organic molecules and oxygen from the bulk liquid to cellular matrix is very minimum compared to that in suspended growth technology for wastewater treatment.
Hence, the conservation of energy in the immobilized state, enhances the rate of degradation of organics in the treatment of municipal wastewater is much greater than in suspended growth system. The elimination of micropores in the carrier matrix avoids the loss of active sites by irreversible bonding with organic molecules in aqueous environment. Therefore, the number of active sites available for oxidation of organic compounds remains a constant. Thus, the rate of removal of dissolved pollutants in wastewater is nearly constant.
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