Sewage treatment or also known as wastewater treatment
is the procedure done to the wastewater and sewage in the house to remove the contaminants. It can be in a physical, chemical and biological method. Its purpose is to generate an eco safe liquid waste flow and the solid garbage or sludge that can be applicable for reuse for example as farmstead fertilizer. As the technology advances, it is now appropriate to reuse the treated fluid for drinking purposes. Singapore is the only country implementing this technology for now.
Its aim in the wastewater treatment is to decrease largely the amount of bacteria in the water to be release back into the earth for a later usage like drinking and bathing. Its efficiency relies upon the quality of the treated water including cloudiness, pH level, type of disinfectant, and concentration of the disinfectant used. General technique use in disinfection is consisting of ultraviolet rays, chlorine and ozone. After its treatment, it is now set for release back to the water cycle.
Most common type of disinfection used in North America is Chlorination because of its economical price and written history of effectiveness but one of the disadvantages is the complexity of its treatment.
Ultraviolet is another method used for disinfection. It uses no chemical in the treatment, and the treated water is safe from harsh effects that life form may catch when treated water are consumed. The main disadvantage of using UV is its maintenance and the need for highly treated wastewater to make sure no organisms still exist. UV method is most commonly used in United Kingdom because of their concerns in the complexity of the first method mentioned, Chlorination.
Third type of disinfection method is Ozone (O3). This technique is very unbalanced and hasty, when in contact it oxidizes almost any organic material therefore destroying numerous pathogenic microbes. It is consider safe rather than Chlorination because it is generated on site unlike Chlorine that needs to be stored on site giving a percentage of an accidental release. One key disadvantage of this method is its high cost operation and the needs for a specialized person in this field.
The odor given out by wastewater treatment signifies a septic condition also know as anaerobic. Early level in the process of treatment generates polluted smelling gases mostly composed of hydrogen Sulphide. In most cities, large treatment plants deals with the odor with carbon reactors. A contact media consisting of bio-slimes and chlorine metabolizes the abominable gases. Different ways of odor control implemented are mixing of hydrogen peroxide, calcium nitrate and other substance capable of neutralizing the level of Sulphide.
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